...I challenged myself with creating something similar, using only CSS.
Here's the result:
Please note, that my version may have accessibility issues, and should thus only be used for progressive enhancement like same-page jumplinks, i.e. not as the only means of (primary) navigation.
Note the "hamburger button" (three horizontal lines) might not be sufficiently recognizable as navigation.
Also, I have discovered that my version doesn't work in iOS Safari. I haven't found a fix (yet), but it has likely to do with
position: fixed and/or